Nouns (mga pangngalan) have several functions. Identifying a noun’s grammatical case is referring to the noun’s use or function in relation to the other words in the phrase, clause, or sentence.
The most common cases of nouns are the subjective case (kaukulang palagyo), the objective case (kaukulang palayon), and the possessive case (kaukulang paari).
Kaukulang Palagyo (Subjective or Nominative Case)
In the subjective or nominative case, the noun may be used as a subject of the sentence, a subject complement, or an appositive.
1. Noun as the subject of the sentence (simuno o paksa)
Nouns are often used as a subject (simuno o paksa) of the sentence.
Ang basura ay itinapon sa tamang lalagyan.
The word basura (trash) is a noun and it is the subject of the sentence.
2. Noun as a subject complement (kaganapang pansimuno)
A subject complement or subjective complement is a word or phrase that follows a linking verb and describes the subject of the sentence. Since we are talking about the functions of nouns, the subject complement we are interested here are nouns or noun phrases in the predicate that renames or describes the subject of the sentence.
Ang basura ay problema sa ating pamayanan. (problema = subject complement)
In this sentence, the noun problema (problem) is part of the predicate and it describes the subject basura by referring to it as a problem.
In Filipino sentences, the subject complement (kaganapang pansimuno) usually comes after the word ay if the sentence has the subject+predicate arrangement (di-karaniwang ayos). However, in a sentence with the predicate+subject arrangement (karaniwang ayos) where the word ay is not used, the subject complement appears first in the sentence.
Problema ang basura sa ating pamayanan. (problema = subject complement)
3. Noun as an appositive (pamuno)
An appositive (pamuno) is a noun, noun phrase, or noun clause that renames or describes another noun right beside it in the sentence. An appositive is usually written in between commas or has a comma before it.
Appositives can rename or describe nouns in the subject, a subject complement, or a direct object.
Ang basura, isang problema sa ating pamayanan, ay nagdudulot ng mga sakit.
The entire phrase isang problema sa ating pamayanan is an appositive because it describes the noun that came before it (basura). The noun problema is the appositive of the subject basura.
Ang pagkain namin ay halohalo, ang paboritong meryenda ni Carlo.
The noun meryenda (snack) renames the subject complement halohalo, so meryenda is the appositive of halohalo.
Si Nanay ay nagluto ng adobong manok, ang paboritong ulam ni Mike.
The noun ulam renames the direct object adobong manok, so ulam is the appositive of adobong manok.
Kaukulang Palayon (Objective Case)
In the objective case, the noun may be used as a direct object of the verb (tuwirang layon o layon ng pandiwa) or as an object of the preposition (layon ng pang-ukol).
4. Noun as the direct object (tuwirang layon o layon ng pandiwa)
A noun may be used as the direct object of an action verb. The direct object receives the action described by the verb. The noun usually follows the action verb and answers the question what or who.
Itinapon ang basura sa tamang lalagyan.
The verb in this sentence is itinapon (threw). The noun that comes after the verb is basura (trash) and it answers the question “Threw what?” or “Itinapon ang ano?”
5. Noun as the object of the preposition (layon ng pang-ukol)
A noun may be used as the object of a preposition (pang-ukol). Examples of Filipino prepositions are sa, ng, para sa, para kay, tungkol sa, tungkol kay, ukol sa, ukol kay, hinggil sa, hinggil kay, laban sa, laban kay, labag sa, labag kay, ayon sa, ayon kay, alinsunod sa, alinsunod kay, nang may, nang wala, mula sa, and tungo sa. The noun that follows a preposition is the object of the preposition.
Itinapon ang basura sa tamang lalagyan.
The noun lalagyan (container) is the object of the preposition sa (into).
Kaukulang Paari (Possessive Case)
6. Nouns in the possessive case (kaukulang paari) show ownership. In Filipino sentences, nouns in the possessive case come after the words ni, nina, kay or kina.
Si Jaime ay pinsan ni Tony.
Kay Jaime ang itim na bag.
Kaukulang Bokatibo (Vocative Case)
7. The vocative case is the case used for nouns that identify or get the attention of the person being addressed.
Grace, siya ay si Jaime.
The noun Grace is in the vocative case because the speaker is calling her attention.
Nagawa ko na po ang mga takdang-aralin ko, Itay.
The noun Itay (Dad) is in the vocative case because the speaker is calling the attention of his or her dad.
The two 15-item worksheets below ask the student to identify the use of the underlined noun in each sentence. The following uses of nouns are included in the worksheets:
- simuno o paksa (subject)
- kaganapang pansimuno (subject complement)
- pamuno (appositive)
- tuwirang layon (direct object of the verb)
- layon ng pang-ukol (object of the preposition)
- panawag (noun in the vocative case)
You may print and distribute these worksheets to your children or students, but you may not distribute these for profit. This topic is introduced in sixth grade. The second page of each pdf file is the answer key.