1. Feel free to download, save, print, photocopy, or distribute the pdf worksheets in this post. Please do not copy or distribute them for profit.
2. I am not a Filipino teacher. The discussion below is the result of my own research in my attempt to understand and explain the topic to my own child. Please verify any information which you think is incorrect. Please leave a comment to notify me of such mistakes. I need your help, too.
Conjunctions are connecting words. They connect words, phrases, or clauses. A conjunction in Filipino is called a pangatnig.
The English language has three main types of conjunctions: (1) coordinating conjunctions, (2) correlative conjunctions, and (3) subordinating conjunctions. They are briefly described below.
Note, however, that Filipino conjunctions are classified differently. Filipino conjunctions are classified according to how they are used in the sentence or to the kinds of phrases or clauses that they relate.
Coordinating conjunctions are words or groups of words that connect elements that are grammatically alike and that are of equal importance or weight. They connect nouns with nouns, verbs with verbs, phrases with phrases, clauses with clauses, etc.
In English, the mnemonic acronym FANBOYS stand for the seven most common coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. The Filipino translations of these coordinating conjunctions are shown below.
- sapagkat, dahil, dahil sa (for)
- at, at saka (and)
- ni, at hindi, ni hindi (nor)
- pero, datapwa’t, nguni’t, subali’t (but)
- o, o kaya (or)
- gayon pa man, gayumpaman, gayunman (yet/nevertheless/nonetheless)
- kaya, kung kaya’t (so)
Correlative conjunctions are conjunctions that are used in pairs. They are used to connect two grammatically-alike elements of equal importance or weight. Listed below are a few Filipino correlative conjunctions.
- man…o (either…or)
- maging…o (whether…or/neither…or)
- hindi…ni, ni…ni (neither..nor)
- kapwa…at, parehong…at (both…and)
- hindi lamang…kundi (pati) (not only…but (also))
Recall that a clause is a group of words with a subject and a predicate. Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect a dependent clause (or subordinate clause) to an independent clause (or main clause). The subordinating conjunction is placed in front of the dependent clause. A subordinating conjunction turns a clause into an element whose meaning depends on the rest of the sentence. Subordinate clauses may appear at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence.
Below is a list of several Filipino words used as subordinating conjunctions. Some words in this list may be used as prepositions (mga pang-ukol) or adverbs (mga pang-abay). If these words are used to begin a clause, then they are acting as conjunctions.
- bagaman, bagama’t (although)
- bago (before)
- dahil sa, sapagka’t (since)
- kapag/pag (if, as soon as, when, whenever)
- kasi, dahil, dahil sa, dahilan sa, gawa ng, porke, sapagkat/sapagka’t, pagkat (because)
- kaya (so, with the result that)
- kaysa (than)
- kahit, ganoong/gayong (inspite of the fact that, even though)
- kung (if, if ever, whether, unless)
- kung gayon (in that case)
- kung kaya’t (so, therefore)
- hanggang, hanggang sa (until, till)
- habang (during the time that, as long as, as the same time as)
- nang (at the time that, when)
- nang sa gayon (so that)
- maging (whether)
- maliban kung (unless, except when)
- palibhasa (because, due to, for this reason)
- para, upang (in order to, in order that, so that, so as to)
- parang (as if)
- samantala (as, while)
The worksheets below are about Filipino conjunctions. These worksheets do not include all of the Filipino conjunctions listed above. Correlative conjunctions are not included in these worksheets.
1. Pagkilala sa Pangatnig_1 ; Mga sagot sa Pagkilala sa Pangatnig_1 : This 20-item worksheet asks the student to draw a box around the conjunction in each sentence.
2. Pagpili ng Tamang Pangatnig_1 ; Mga sagot sa Pagpili ng Tamang Pangatnig_1 : This 20-item worksheet asks the student to select the appropriate conjunction (from a given set of conjunctions) to complete each sentence.
3. Pagpili ng Tamang Pangatnig_2 ; Mga sagot sa Pagpili ng Tamang Pangatnig_2 : This 20-item worksheet asks the student to select the appropriate conjunction (given a choice of three conjunctions) that completes each sentence.